- Abrougui, A. (2014) Tunisian media in flux since revolution. Al-Jazeera, 19 April. Available online:
A news article published in Al-Jazeera claims that the new found freedom in Tunisia has raised new questions about transparency, objectivity and the need for editorial independence.
- Aiachi, Sophie- Alexandra (2013) Pouvoir médiatique et transition politique: le cas de la Tunisie. Nov. 2013. IRIS (Institut des relations internationales et stratégiques).
The article discusses the effects of the Arab spring on Tunisian media environment. It suggests that the people are ready for a democratic transition in which the media will have a central role.
- Assessment of media development in Tunisia. Based on UNESCO’s media development indicators. Tunisia: Unesco.
A report of a study of media development in Tunisia since the Revolution of 2011, based on UNESCO’s Media Development Indicators. It evaluates the constitutional and legal framework for freedom of expression, media pluralism and diversity including financing of the media sector and transparency of ownership, the performance of the media as a platform for democratic debate, institutional arrangements for continuing professional training and for higher education in journalism and media, and questions of infrastructure and new information technologies (ICT).
- Azzi, Abderrahmane (1998) Mass media in the Grand Maghrib: Morocco – Algeria – Tunisia. Department of Communication, IIU Malaysia. 11 June 1998. Available online:
The article maps the trends and historical dimensions of media development of print and electronic media, and news agencies in Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia.
- Barata Mir, J. (2011) Political and media transitions in Tunisia: A snapshot of media policy and regulatory environment. Internews, August 2011.
A report of the media policy and regulatory environment in Tunisia in 2011 after the sudden power shifts. The report has been commissioned by Internews, which is an international non-profit organization whose mission is to empower local media worldwide.
- Chouikha, L. (2012) Evaluation de la mission de service public audiovisuel en Tunisie, in, La mission de service public audiovisuel dans la région Maghreb/Machrek, Rapport régional, Ed; Institut Panos Paris et Observatori Mediterrani de la communication (OMEC), édition en français, pp 171-191.
- Dowson-Zeidan, Najla, Eaton, Tim, Wespieser, Karen (2015) After the revolution – what do Libyans and Tunisians believe about their media? Research report, Issue 06, March 2015. Governance. BBC Media Action. Available online in English and in Arabic:
A research made by the BBC Media Action, which is part of the project of UK government’s Department for International Development (DFID). The report discusses what the people of Libya and Tunisia believe about their media after the Arab Spring. What opinions do audiences in the two countries share, what are the differences between them and what information sources do they trust? This research was among the first conducted after the two countries’ 2011 elections.
- El Bour, Hamida (2013) Médias publics arabes et transition démocratiques. Actes du colloque international 26 et 27 avril 2012, Tunisia. Insitut de Presse et des sciences de l´information. Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung.
- El Issawi, Fatima (2012) Tunisian media in Transition. Washington: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. Middle East, July 2012.
A news analysis about Tunisian media after the 2011 revolution. The article has been produced by the Carnegie Middle East Program that combines in-depth local knowledge with comparative analysis to examine economic, sociopolitical, and strategic interests in the Arab world.
- El Issawi, Fatima (2015) Tunisian media and political polarization: glorifying the self, rejecting the other. In: Longo, Pietro and Meringolo, Azzurra, (eds.) The Tunisian Media: Between Polarization and Compromise. Arab media report, 5. Rome, Italy, pp. 33–48.
A book section that discusses the findings of the empirical research project “Arab revolutions: Media revolutions” by the department of Media and Communications at the London School of Economics (LSE). The research focused on traditional media practices and values after the uprisings.
- Ferjani, Riadh (2011) All the sides of censorship: Online media accountability practices in pre-revolutionary Tunisia. MediaACT. Working paper, 12/2011.
This study is part of a collection of country reports on media accountability practices on the Internet funded by the European Union. The historical formation of the national media field in Tunisia shows that media accountability issues are mainly shaped by the autonomization and professionalization of journalists vs. state control and censorship. This report explains the developments in media accountability online just before the revolution at the end of 2010.
- Hafez, Kai (2002) Journalism Ethics Revisited: A Comparison of Ethics Codes in Europe, North Africa, the Middle East, and Muslim Asia. Political Communication, 19:2. pp. 225–250.
The article compares the ethical codes of journalism from Europe and the Islamic world. According to the analysis, there is a broad intercultural consensus that standards of truth and objectivity should be central values of journalism pharmacieinde.fr. On the other hand, differences between the West and many Islamic countries are to be found in the status accorded to freedom of expression.
- Howard, P.N. & Hussain M.M. (2011) The upheavals in Egypt and Tunisia. The role of digital media. Journal of Democracy 22:3, 35–48.
The article discusses the role of internet, mobile phones and social media in the development of the “Arab spring”, the political uprisings and democratization.
- Instance nationale pour la réforme de l´information & de la communication. Rapport général, résumé. Tunisie. INRIC. Avril 2012.
The report written by the National commission for information and communication reform (INRIC) discusses Tunisian media environment after 2011 and focuses especially on questions of democratization and freedom of speech.
- Labidi, Kamel (2014) Joint Action key to media reform: the case of Tunisia. Toward a media regulatory reform in the Middle East and North Africa. International Media Support. April 2014.
An essay published by the International media support (ims). The author is a journalist, former Chair of the National Commission for Information and Communication Reform, and Cofounder of the Civilian Coalition for the Defense of Freedom of Expression. He discusses the work of the commission in Tunisia as part of a collection of essays on media law reform processes in the Middle East and North Africa.
- Longo, Pietro & Azzura Meringolo (2015) The Tunisian media: between polarization and compromise. Arab media report, 5.
- Pintak, Lawrence (2013) Islam, Identity and Professional Values: A study of Journalists in three Muslim majority regions. Journalism. Published online 17 June 2013.
The article argues that the values of Islam are the prism through which journalists in Muslim-majority countries approach their profession. Empirical data is introduced to support this argument.
- Rampal, Kuldip Roy (1996) Professionals in search of professionalism: Journalists´ dilemma in four Maghreb states. Gazette 58, 25–43.
A qualitative field study published in 1996 examines the major educational and training programs in journalism in Algeria, Libya, Morocco and Tunisia. The study examined the difficulties posed by the political, legal and media structural factors in the application of professional skills acquired through journalism education.
- Stepan, Alfred (2012) Tunisia´s transition and the twin tolerations. Journal of democracy, vol. 23 (2). 89–103.
In the article, the author argues that Tunisia achieved a successful democratic transition, albeit not yet a consolidation of democracy. It is further argued, that it did so while adhering to a relationship between religion and politics. This relationship is discussed in the article.
- Beau, Nicolas & Lagarde, Dominique (2014) L´exeption tunisienne. Chronique d´une transition démocratique mouvementée. Paris: Editions du Seuil.
- Larbi Chouikha (2015) Le difficile transformation des médias. Des années de l´indépendance à la veille des élections de 2014. Tunis, 2015.
- Moez, Ben Messaoud & Hamida, El Bour & Janinen (2013) Manuel de couverture des événements politiques.
A handbook on basic and advanced training for Tunisian journalists. Published in French and Arabic.
- Stolpe-Krüger (ed.) DW Akademie et L’Institut de Presse et des Sciences de l´Information. Projet: “Une expression de la Liberté: Soutenir les médias démocratiques en Tunisie”. Tunis: Artypo.
- Webb, Edward (2014) Media in Egypt and Tunisia: From control to transition? New York: Palgrave MacMillan